B.A., Ohio Wesleyan University, 1954
M.D., Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1958
Intern/Assistant Resident Internal Medicine, Barnes Hospital, Washington University
Assistant Resident Pathology, Vanderbilt University Hospital
Research Resident Internal Medicine, Vanderbilt Service, Thayer VA Hospital
Chief Resident Internal Medicine, Vanderbilt University Hospital
My primary research interest is human zinc nutrition. I was introduced to this "esoteric" topic in 1961. It is no longer esoteric; zinc deficiency is estimated to affect at least 20% of humans worldwide. To achieve some understanding of zinc I have worked with interdisciplinary colleagues. I because interested in the role of zinc in the developing rat brain in about 1968. Results in experimental animals eventually led to study pregnancy in low income teenagers and adult women, and non-pregnant permenopausal women in Galveston. Our finding and those of others suggest that many young US women are at risk of zinc deficiency, and that low serum ferritin concentration might be a bio-marker of the problem. Concerning brain function we measured effects of zinc status on low income Chinese and Mexican-American children, and premenopausal US women, using a randomized controlled treatment trial approach that compared effects of zinc given with a broad mixture of other micronutrients vs the micronutrients alone, and in one study vs zinc alone. Zinc given with the other micronutrients was the most effective treatment. Theses interests continue. My role as a teacher has primarily been concerned with clinical nutrition. My students include medical students, residents, graduate students, and faculty colleagues.